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There has always been a double aspect to such encounters. At an immediate and practical level, conquest, colonization and trade led to modes of domination or coexistence and multi-faceted transcultural relationships. In Europe, such encounters with "otherness" led to attempts to explain and interpret the origins and nature of racial and cultural linguistic, religious and social diversity.
At the same time, observation of alien societies, cultures and religious practices broadened the debate on human social forms, leading to a critical reappraisal of European Christian civilization.
InhaltsverzeichnisTable of Contents Preliminary remarks Now the Great Map of Mankind is unrolled at once; and there is no state or Gradation of barbarism, and no mode of refinement which we have not at the same instant under our View. The very different Civility of Europe and of China; the barbarism of Persia and Abyssinia, the erratic manners of Tartary, and of Arabia.
In the second half of the 15th century, Europe entered an age of discovery which resulted in new, increasingly dense relationships with territories and populations all over the world.
This also involved geographical, geological and other discoveries, as knowledge of the shape and layout of the world and the location of resources entered the Western consciousness. But there was also an important ethno-anthropological aspect to the discoveries, as the variety of peoples and forms of social organization affected European reflections on human society, culture, religion, government and civilization through a continuous interplay between the testimonies of travellers and the work of scholars at home.
The term discovery is controversial as it implies a passivity on the part of indigenous populations, who were "found" by Europeans. This asymmetrical view denies an autonomous existence to indigenous populations before the arrival of Europeans.
Since the early s, historians have increasingly replaced the term "discovery" with "encounter", which is perceived as more neutral and implying a reciprocity rather than the subject-object relationship implied by the term "discovery".
The term "encounter" is also free of the ideological connotations that terms such as "conquest" and "expansion" imply, and "encounter" is compatible with a transcultural approach to global history.
The adoption of a more neutral term does not, however, alter the fact that a process of European penetration into regions of the world previously unknown to Europeans did occur, and through this process Europeans "discovered" for themselves new species and ecosystems, and new peoples and societies.
During this process, European perceptions of the encountered "others" were dominated from the outset by a hierarchical perspective. As "encounter" implies a reciprocal, two-way process, the study of these encounters is not complete without considering the non-European perspective.
However, this article will deal primarily with the European side of the encounter. With whom, where and when? For many centuries, Europe's "others" had been the "barbarian" peoples encountered by the Greeks and the Romans, then the Islamic Arabs and later the Mongols.
For five centuries, the Ottoman Turks remained the primary "other" for Christendom. In all these cases, the "others" were enemies who constituted a direct threat to Christian Europe.
During the early modern period, however, Europeans encounters were the consequence of a process of expansion on the part of dynamic Western societies during their transformation into modern capitalist economies and nation-states.
The first wave of expansion during the 15th and 16th centuries focused on three main areas.
Firstly, there was the Atlantic basin from the Atlantic islands and coastal western Africa to the central areas of the American continent. Secondly, there were the northern seas, stretching eastward from the Baltic to the White Sea and the Siberian coasts and westward to the northern American coasts of CanadaLabradorthe Hudson Bay and the Baffin Island.
Thirdly, there was the Oriental seas and northern Asia. The second wave of expansion occurred during the 18th century, mainly in the Pacific region, including AustraliaTasmaniaNew GuineaNew Zealand and the Pacific Islandsand also in the northern seas between Alaska and Siberia.
The third wave witnessed expansion into central Africa by Europeans during the 19th century the so-called "scramble" or "race" for Africa. Each successive wave brought encounters with new "others" for white Europeans, and — reciprocally — brought several peoples in different parts of the world into the sphere of influence of a self-confident, fair skinned "other" equipped with big vessels, firearms and an insatiable hunger for riches and souls.The years between and witness the ongoing industrialization of France, as in other countries of Western Europe and in North America.
Economically, politically, culturally, and socially, Paris continues to be at the center of French life, periodic efforts at decentralization notwithstanding.
rivalry between Spain and France started in Europe, where Spain was defending Roman Catholicism during the advent of Protestantism and the Enlightenment.
2 Peña Batlle further searches for the causes of Spanish colonial decline in His-. Spain and England opposed each other for numerous reason and it goes without saying that colonial expansion in the Americas made these countries rivals. This created rival trade networks that each of the two empires.
The . The Rise of Monarchies: France, England, and Spain One of the most significant developments in the three centuries leading up to the Renaissance period was the collapse of feudalism.
Charles VIII of France (r. –98) invades Italy and seizes Naples, launching the so-called Italian Wars, a series of military conflicts between rival European powers—particularly France and Spain—for the takeover of several Italian city-states. Issued by Pope Alexander VI, A agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the . Sep 08, · What is the main reason for tension between Spain and England in the ss? Follow. 7 and France's King Louis XIV trounced France in both the Franco-Dutch War, and the Nine Year's War. After that, things got even worse for the Spanish. The rivalry between England and Spain shaped the face of the world Status: Resolved.
This social and economic system had emerged during the ninth century in the Carolingian Empire (pronounced care-eh-LIN-jee-ehn), which was . France and Spain continued with large shipbuilding programs in the s, with the intention to renew the challenge against Britain in future contests in the Atlantic.
The other two Atlantic powers, Portugal and the Dutch Republic, preferred neutrality during most of the eighteenth century. Issued by Pope Alexander VI, A agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the .