Many college entrance exams in the early s were specific to each school and required candidates to travel to the school to take the tests. The College Boarda consortium of colleges in the northeastern United States, was formed in to establish a nationally administered, uniform set of essay tests based on the curricula of the boarding schools that typically provided graduates to the colleges of the Ivy League and Seven Sistersamong others. Terman in particular thought that such tests could identify an innate " intelligence quotient " IQ in a person.
The better the thinking the better the perspective taking. However, this is correlational so all we can say with certainty is that the two are associated. Importantly, however, Walker does believe that the cognitive improvements do take place first suggesting there may be a causal relationship.
This feeds back into increased motivation for more play and exploration, resulting in even faster brain development. Perspective taking can be slowed There is plenty of research to suggest that children that are mistreated in the home do not develop perspective taking skills as quickly as other children.
Manly found that teenagers average age 15 that had been mistreated at home had the average perspective taking ability of a ten year old. This could be down to the fact that mistreated children have fewer social interactions with parents or because they are observing poor social behaviour in their parents.
Perspective taking can be speeded up Environmental scanning 4 essay Dunn recommends that parents discuss new arrivals with their older children.
Alison Gopnik emphasizes the need to explain to children why other people might have different views and experience things differently. An ideal opportunity is provided by the fictional characters in books. Larry Aber believes that this improves academic performance as well as reducing conflict especially in children most prone to fighting.
Evaluation Validity Do the predictions made by these tests stand up in real life situations? This appears to be the case. Selman et al got girls to work in small groups and make puppets and then put on puppet shows.
Those who had earlier scored well on PT were observed to communicate better as part of the groups. Perspective taking is important in social situations Perspective taking does seem to proceed through the stages he suggests The lack of social skills in maltreated children may be due to their inability to perspective take Perspective taking does seem to be associated with improving cognitive development and with higher intelligence.
However Better developed perspective taking ability is not a guarantee of social success! In real-life situations the child also needs to know how to use these skills and crucially which behaviours are suitable or not in different situations.
Although you would expect children with better PT skills to be more popular with peers, this is not always the case. Attempts to teach PT skills to children to improve their social competence are not always successful. The theory places too great an emphasis on perspective taking as a determinant of social interactions.
Many people have very good PT skills and high cognitive ability but for whatever reason are not good in social situations. Motivation, not mentioned by Selman, is also needed.
The theory is reductionist. Children high in emotionality those who experience intense, usually negative emotions and low in ability to manage their emotions, tend to be less socially competent than others, Eisenberg et al Biological control of social cognition including the Mirror-Neuron System This section will look at biological explanations of social cognition.
However, at the outset it is important to bear in mind that different explanations of similar characteristics are not mutually exclusive. Evidence for biological explanations do not mean other explanations are wrong; they are simply viewing the behaviour at a different level.
The Mirror-Neuron System Understanding the behaviour and thoughts of others is a very useful characteristic of any social creature.Paper 2. Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein..
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