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Of the many that exist, the most prevalent are learning theoriessocial cognitive theorytheories of reasoned action and planned behaviourtranstheoretical model of behavior change, the health action process approach and the BJ Fogg model of behavior change.
Research has also been conducted regarding specific elements of these theories, especially elements like self-efficacy that are common to several of the theories. Self-efficacy is thought to be predictive of the amount of effort an individual will expend in initiating and maintaining a behavioural change, so although self-efficacy is not a behavioural change theory per se, it is an important element of many of the theories, including the health belief modelthe theory of planned behaviour and the health action process approach.
Learning theories and behaviour analytic theories of change[ edit ] From behaviourists such as B. Skinner come the learning theorieswhich state that complex behaviour is learned gradually through the modification of simpler behaviours. Imitation and reinforcement play important roles in these theories, which state that individuals learn by duplicating behaviours they observe in others and Different concepts of challenging behaviour rewards are essential to ensuring the repetition of desirable behaviour.
As each simple behaviour is established through imitation and subsequent reinforcementthe complex behaviour develops. When verbal behaviour is established the organism can learn through rule-governed behaviour and thus not all action needs to be contingency shaped.
Social learning and social cognitive theory[ edit ] According to the social learning theory  more recently expanded as social cognitive theory behavioural change is determined by environmental, personal, and behavioural elements.
Each factor affects each of the others. Social learning theory focuses on the reciprocal interactions between these factors, which are hypothesised to determine behavioral change. As a result, intention is an important factor in determining behaviour and behavioural change.
Different concepts of challenging behaviour This report would cover the strategies for coping with challenging behaviours associated with specific needs. Challenging behaviours is one of the typical cases which are pretty common in patients which are referred to health and social care units. JOIN US ON OUR JOURNEY Our environment is facing so many pressures, from plastic pollution to climate change, from habitat destruction to the unsustainable use of plants and animals, the list is endless. The potential impact of challenging behavior on health and social care organizations. The challenging behaviors of the users of the health and social care create obstacles for the health and social care organizations to cope with and adjust. The health workers are in a problem to cope with these problems.
Thus, personal attitude and social pressure shape intention, which is essential to performance of a behaviour and consequently behavioural change. Theory of planned behaviour[ edit ] InAjzen expanded upon the theory of reasoned action, formulating the theory of planned behaviour which also emphasises the role of intention in behaviour performance but is intended to cover cases in which a person is not in control of all factors affecting the actual performance of a behaviour.
InFishbein and Ajzen introduced the reasoned action approachthe successor of the theory of planned behaviour. Transtheoretical or stages of change model[ edit ] According to the transtheoretical model   of behavior change, also known as the stages of change model, states that there are five stages towards behavior change.
The five stages, between which individuals may transition before achieving complete change, are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation for action, action, and maintenance. At the precontemplation stage, an individual may or may not be aware of a problem but has no thought of changing their behavior.
From precontemplation to contemplation, the individual begins thinking about changing a certain behavior. During preparation, the individual begins his plans for change, and during the action stage the individual begins to exhibit new behavior consistently.
An individual finally enters the maintenance stage once they exhibit the new behavior consistently for over six months. A problem faced with the stages of change model is that it is very easy for a person to enter the maintenance stage and then fall back into earlier stages. Health action process approach[ edit ] The health action process approach HAPA  is designed as a sequence of two continuous self-regulatory processes, a goal-setting phase motivation and a goal-pursuit phase volition.The term ‘challenging behaviour’ is used as a way to label the behaviours as challenging, rather than label the person as the problem.
Challenging behaviour affects many people in the community, and is not an inevitable result of developmental disability. Ethics. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics.
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