Task 1 Band Scores and Marking Criteria Understand the band scores for each criterion in writing task 1. The examiner will give you a band score for each individual criterion above and then your final score for writing task 1 is the average of the 4. Types of Task 1 Learn the 6 main types of charts that can be given in writing task 1 maps, diagrams, bar charts, tables, line graphs and pie charts. It is also possible to get a combination of two types, for example a bar chart with a pie chart.
Ask one group to work on encouraging and the other on discouraging situations.
Each group member should try to think of at least one situation. Jog their memory by giving them some examples child wanting to play with bigger children, certain school situations, situations in the family, situations at work, discussions on topics where they felt they were expert or were not informed.
Encourage them to share some of these stories amongst each others within their respective group. Attitudes and behaviour conducive to participatory processes Prepare a presentation on positive attitudes and behaviours for participatory processes see below.
Participatory Attitudes and Behaviour Generally speaking, participation is a collective action aimed at achieving a common objective- it means "taking part" and "getting involved".
The main task of the facilitator is therefore to encourage, prepare and involve people in a process or activity.
In a participatory process, persons or groups share knowledge, ideas, opinions, votes, materials, resources, labour, finances in order to reach a common agreement or to make joint decisions in a transparent way. There are different levels of participation see session 3, Typology of Participationranging from passive participation where people are involved merely by providing information to others or by being told what is going to happen to active participation and self-mobilisation where people take initiatives independently.
Empowerment describes a progressive process of participation that enables local groups to take initiative and work actively in the interest of the community. This goes far beyond simply widening access to decision making. It implies making people understand the reality of their situation, reflect on the factors that influence the situation, and - most critically - take steps to effect changes to improve it.
When applying or implementing participatory approaches, it is important to know how a particular technique is applied. But it is also important to understand the key principles that lie behind the technique see session 4 Key principles and which attitudes and behaviours are fundamental to a participatory process.
The following list identifies a number of attitudes which are particularly conducive to participatory processes. This leads them to different conclusions and actions see Session 4 Key principle "Multiple Perspective". This suggests that everywhere there exists multiple descriptions and interpretations of real world phenomena, events and actions.
Accepting this phenomenon leads to a fundamental understanding for all participatory processes. Everyone perceives different realities and therefore offers important contributions to a process.
The different views of people can complement each other. Where everybody thinks the same, there is not much thinking!!! This is preferable to the more common teaching or preaching attitude which suggests the feeling of "knowing it better".
This "learning attitude" can be enhanced by acknowledging and respecting the opinion and experience of others. This requires recognising local expertise and the special knowledge they have of their own living conditions.
Thus the role of a facilitator is to enhance the involvement of all interested parties in all processes such as investigations, analyses and evaluations of problems, constraints and opportunities, and the taking of informed and timely decisions.
Transparency Participatory decision-making requires readiness from all sides to reach a "win-win" compromise. An atmosphere of mutual trust is the basis for compromise.
Constructive co-operation and transparency by all stakeholders is a basic requirement. Transparency will avoid hidden agendas and suspicion amongst different parties and thus prevent situations in which all parties try to protect their own interests rather than finding the most suitable compromise.
Their views often may be difficult to understand and contradictory or incompatible with one's own ideas and beliefs. Furthermore it requires an attitude of objectivity to follow the process through and, be ready to rethink and re-plan at any stage.
Positive Working Style A positive working style encourages an openness to actively listen to other points of view and sharing of opinions without taking reactive or reactionary positions. It is the opposite of hierarchical and authoritarian working approaches. It is working together.
You may wish to clarify the idea of a "Positive Working Style" with a role-playing exercise. Divide the participants into 3 groups and assign each group to perform one of the following working styles: Let the group observe all three working styles and then comment on which one seemed most conducive to participatory approaches.
If acted out correctly, they will all identify the latter open-minded and transparent as the most positive of the working style.
When giving the information above in whatever form, include also the instructions for the game "Chinese Whisper".
Do's and Don'ts in participatory processes Invite participants to have a look back over the key principles and attitudes and behaviour which encourages or discourages participatory processes.
Then invite participants to share their list with the rest of the group. Working with a flip chart, if possible, try to come to a commonly agreed list which the group is ready to adopt for the duration of the workshop and beyond. It demonstrates how important it is to pass information clearly and with transparency.
To conduct the game, invite your participants to sit in a large circle. During the game no one is allowed to ask questions and no one is allowed to repeat the message, even if the following person did not hear it well.Organize a Brainstorm With One Main Condition.
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